The aim of secondary education is to make the learners fit for entry into higher education by flourishing their latent talents and prospects with a view to building the nation with the spirit of the Language Movement and the Liberation War. To make the learners skilled and competent citizens of the country based on the economic, social, cultural and environmental settings is also an important issue of secondary education. The textbooks of secondary level have been written and compiled according to the revised curriculum 2012 in accordance with the aims and objectives of National Education Policy 2010. Contents and presentations of the textbooks have been selected according to the moral and humanistic values of Bengali tradition and culture and the spirit of Liberation War 1971 ensuring equal dignity for all irrespective of caste and creed of different religions and sex.
The present government is committed to ensure the successful implementation of Vision 2021. Honorable Prime Minister, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina expressed her firm determination to make the country free from illiteracy and instructed the concerned authority to give free textbooks to every student of the country. National Curriculum and Textbook Board started to distribute textbooks free of cost since 2010 according to her instruction.
In the era of globalization, English is one of the most powerful tools for pursuing higher studies, using technology, inter-cultural and inter-personal communications, and job markets at home and abroad. The curriculum makes it explicit that language learning will be graded and contents will reflect real life situations as the ultimate purpose of language learning is to communicate. The English for Today textbooks have been developed to help students attain competency in all four language skills, i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing. The contents and illustrations of this textbook have been developed in order to suit the learners’ age and cognitive level.
The textbook has been revised and re-edited by prominent educationists to make it learner friendly in 2017 and 2020. I thank sincerely all for their intellectual labour who were involved in the process of revision, writing, editing, art and design of the textbook.
Prof. Narayan Chandra Saha
National Curriculum and Textbook Board, Bangladesh
Unit One: Father of the Nation
After we have studied the unit, we will be able to
- read and understand texts
- narrate incidents and events in a logical sequence
- participate in conversations, discussions, and debates
- tell stories
Lesson 1: Baragabiaadhiu’s Family in 1971
A Look at tta pktarea betaw and dl*co» the followtag gaesifau ill pete
- Who can you see in the pictures?
- What do you know about them?
- Where wwe these people during the War?
B Read the text and awer the questions that follow.
It was the night of 25th March, 1971. There was a full of quictnces at Bangabandhu’s home at Dhanmondi Road No. 32 throughout the day. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his family members could apprehend that something tragic was going to happen. Gunshots were heard around the city. Bangabandhu’s eldest son Sheikh Kamal was out of home for forming barricades against the Pakistan Army who had been killing people indiscriminately that night. Bangabandhu decided to send the girls of the family to a safer place for the night and he gave their responsibility to his son in law Mr. Wazed Miah. Bangabandhu’s daughter Sheikh Hasina, who was expecting a baby soon along with her sister Sheikh Rehana and her cousin Farida were sent to a house at Road no. 15, Dhanmondi for that night. Bangabandhu’s wife Begum Fazilatunnesa Mujib, stayed with him.
Just before midnight, Bangabandhu sent the declaration of Independence to Mr. Zahur Ahmed Chowdhury at Chattogram via wireless. At the darkest part of that night, the Pakistan Army surrounded his home and started firing at random. The situation agitated Bangabandhu much and he asked them to stop. But, soon he was instructed to get ready to go with them. Begum Mujib packed his necessary belongings. After Bangabandhu left, she was at a loss what to do and where to go with her children. However, being a supportive wife of the great leader all 2022
through her life, she soon pulled up her mental strength. But, her anxiety continued till the end of the war.
The next day Begum Mujib had to leave House No. 32 with her children and other members of her home. During the next couple of months, they moved from one shelter to another in search of a safer place. During their stay in those places, some people came forward to helping them while some refused to give them shelter for fear of their own safety. When their provision ran short, Sheikh Kamal, who had already joined the Liberation War, came to them in disguise and delivered some money. Some very close people also supported the family with money and food stuff.
So far the family members were ignorant about Bangabandhu’s condition. Suddenly they came to know that he was alive and had been taken to Pakistan. Begum Mujib started to keep contact with Awami League leaders. But soon the family was taken to Dhanmondi, House No. 18 by the Pakistan Army and kept under house arrest. However, people would come to their home with valuable information in disguise of vendors; also some would throw pieces of waste paper with important information written on them.
In the month of May, the same year, Pakistan Army set fire to Bangabandhu’s Tungipara home in front of his parents. A young man from the village protested the evil deed and was shot dead. Both the parents of Bangabandhu fell ill in October and were admitted to the PG Hospital. Begum Mujib and her family were allowed to visit them two or three times a week for one hour. However, that created the opportunity for them to establish a better communication with the freedom fighters.
Begum Mujib was extremely worried about her children, especially her daughter Sheikh Hasina, because of her health condition. However, she was not allowed by the Pakistani rulers to be with her daughter, when she was admitted to hospital. Mr. Wazed Miah and Bangabandhu’s second son Sheikh Jamal accompanied Sheikh Hasina to the hospital. Bangabandhu’s youngest sister, pretending to be a hospital attendant, entered the hospital and looked after her niece. Sheikh Hasina was blessed with a baby boy on 27 July who was later named Sajeeb Wazed Joy. As the Pakistan Army often used to threaten Sheikh Jamal that they would hang him upside down, he, finding an opportunity, fled from the hospital and joined the freedom fighters.
Finally the Victory day arrived! There was joy everywhere! But, Bangabandhu’s family was yet to be freed from captivity. The Pakistani occupational forces were still cordoning Bangabandhu’s house and firing at people rushing over
there chanting ‘Joy Bangla’, the invigorating slogan of the Bangalees. But they fled the next morning when the Indian Army came to rescue the family. Sheikh Jamal relumed home in the afternoon while Sheikh Kamal returned home the next day. Nevertheless, the biggest anxiety of the family persisted- Bangabandhu was yet to be released from Pakistani prison and they didn’t know when that great moment would arrive and how.
(Source: Sheikh Rehanar sathe ekanto alapocarita: Antaranga Aloy Bangahandhur Poribar by Sanchita)
B List the five ways how the Pakistan Army tortured Bangabandhu’s family.
C Divide into pairs and tell the sufferings of Bangabandhu’s family
during Liberation War in your own words (Do not look at the book).
D Answer the following questions. First discuss in groups of four, then write the answers individually.
- Why was the family anxious on the 25th March night in 1971?
- Where did Bangabandhu send the girls on that night?
- How would the family communicate with people or freedom fighters while they were under house arrest?
- How did the Pakistan Army scare Sheikh Jamal? How did Sheikh Jamal manage to flee from captivity?
- How do you explain Bangabandhu’s family’s contribution to Liberation War?
E Discuss if the sentences are True/False. Give correct information if any statement is false.
- Begum Mujib went to a safer place at Dhanmandi at the night on 25 March, 1971.
- Bangabandhu had declared the independence of Bangladesh before he was arrested by Pakistan Army.
- Nobody stood beside the family of Bangabandhu during Liberation War.
- Bangabandhu’s parents became very sick soon after the Pakistan Army had set fire to their home at Tungipara.
- After Liberation War was over, Sheikh Kamal and Sheikh Jamal both returned home on the same day.
F Identify the sentences using ‘however’ in the text along with their immediate preceding sentences. Discuss in pairs why ‘however’ is used between the sentences.
Note that ‘however’ is used to show contrast or contradictions and it is accompanied by a comma.
G Write five more pairs of sentences using ‘however’.
H Group work: Discuss the sufferings of people during the Liberation War. Then write a paragraph on that.
Lesson 2: The Tale of Homecoming
A Work in pairs to discuss the following questions.
- What do you see in the picture?
- Who do you identify in the picture?
- Do you find any connection between the picture and the title of the lesson? How?
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B Read the story of Bangabandhu’s homecoming to answer the questions that follow.
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was arrested by the Pakistani army immediately after his declaration of independence at the first hour of the 26 March 1971. He was taken to Pakistan as a captive and imprisoned there in a small cell for capital punishment until 7th January, 1972. Even a grave was dug in front of his cell but Mujib was fearless. He knew nothing would stop the Bangalees to gain independence. In fact, his name and independence became synonymous. So the whole world was awaiting breathlessly to witness his homecoming. And he had a grand homecoming indeed narrated by eminent columnist and writer, Syed Badrul Ahsan. An abridged version of that narration is presented below.
In the evening of 7 January, 1972; Bangabandhu left Chaklala Airport in Rawalpindi, from where he would fly to London. Nine months earlier he was brought to Pakistan as a prisoner with little hope to return. And now he was free to go home. Pakistan, as soon as the PIA aircraft took off, was finally behind him. …
Early in the morning on 8 January 1972, Bangabandhu arrived at Heathrow Airport. News of Bangabandhu’s arrival in London spread quickly. Journalists, the general public, British officials and politicians and Bangalee residents in the city made their way to Hotel Claridges. News bulletins on the BBC and other media organizations made note of Bangabandhu’s arrival in their headlines. By early afternoon, the Father of the Nation had met the British Prime Minister Edward Heath and the Leader of the opposition Harold Wilson. Then he called Dhaka and for the first time since his arrest by the Pakistan Army in March, spoke to his family. A long conversation then followed with Prime Minister Tajuddin Ahmad. The conversations with his family and with Tajuddin were emotional affairs, but he now had a clear picture of all that had happened in his absence in Bangladesh. It gave him immense pleasure knowing that he had truly liberated his people.
Bangabandhu’s opening words at a crowded news conference that evening at Claridges was a touch poetic. He expressed the unbounded joy of freedom achieved by his people in an epic liberation struggle. Bangladesh, he told the
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crowd, was a reality and would fulfill its obligations as part of the international community. He made it clear that those who were involved in different types of crimes including genocide would be trialled by his government.
- Work in pairs. Write on the blank spaces how you would express these words/phrases in your own language and then make sentences with them.
declaration of independence capital punishment (to) await breathlessly
(to) make their way emotional affairs immense
touch poetic unbounded joy genocide
D Talk about the questions.
- What made Bangabandhu so bold while in the prison?
- How did time change in Bangabandhu’s life within the nine months in a Pakistani prison?
- How did London welcome Bangabandhu?
- Do you agree with the statement that Bangabandhu was excited as well as relieved from long anxiety in London? Why/Why not?
- Read the following texts by the same author that describes Bangabandhu’s a few more hours of journey towards home.
Bangabandhu left London for Dhaka on the 9 January evening in 1972. On the way he would stopover in Delhi. He was welcomed at Delhi’s Palam Airport in the morning of 10 January by President V.V. Giri, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, West Bengal politician and Chief Minister Siddhartha Shankar Ray and the chiefs of the Indian armed forces. Bangabandhu stayed in Delhi for about two hours. During this time, he addressed a public rally and mesmerized everyone. There he wholeheartedly thanked Mrs. Gandhi, the people and the politicians of India for the tremendous help they had provided to Bangladesh and its ten million refugees.
8 English For Today
Then it was on to Dhaka, where millions of people had begun to crowd the route that their leader would pass and the Race Course Maidan where the leader would deliver a speech before going home. On the tarmac at Tejgaon Airport, soldiers of the Indian army and the Mukti Bahini were on standby to present Bangladesh’s President with a guard of honour. Members of the wartime cabinet waited in the winter sun, as did a horde of newsmen. Sometime after 1:30 pm the Comet aircraft made available to Bangabandhu by the British government landed in Dhaka.
As soon as the doors of the aircraft opened, Bangabandhu appeared. It was clear he had lost weight due to imprisonment for nearly ten months in a Pakistani prison. A big smile appeared on his face as he swept back his hair with his right hand. Prime Minister Tajuddin Ahmad then moved forward and buried his head in his leader’s chest. Both men broke down. Their tears soon led to moist eyes in nearly everyone else present around them. Once the formalities at the airport were completed, the Father of the Nation climbed on a board of an open truck, with the Mujibnagar government figures and the student leaders crowding around him. He headed for the Race Course.
The two-mile stretch of road would take the procession almost three hours to cover. At the Race Course, Bangabandhu wept remembering the sacrifices of the Bangalees had made in the war against Pakistan. He told how the military junta had tried to intimidate him during his trial. He said, “I told them I am a Bangalee and a Muslim, who only dies once. I would walk the gallows with head held high.” The Father of the Nation remarked, the Bangalees had become the golden children of the Golden Bengal. Quoting the poet Rabindranath Tagore, who once had complained that the people of Bengal had remained mere Bangalees but were yet to become true human beings. Mujib told the jubilant crowd that the poet had been proved wrong. “Come back, O poet”, he intoned dramatically, “and see how your Bangalees are today transformed into worthy men.”
Moments later, as dusk and a winter haze settled over Dhaka, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman made his way back to his family. They had been waiting for him at the house in Dhanmondi Road 32 where he had left his family before the Pakistan Army arrested him on the eve of the Liberation War.
- Match the words/phrases in Column with the meanings in Column B. One is done for you. After matching, make sentences using them relating to your life.
|Column A||Column B|
|on the way \||a group of army personnel who rules a country|
|stopover||to fill eyes with tears|
|wholeheartedly||in course of a journey|
|tarmac||area from which planes take off at an airport|
|horde of newsmen||a group of journalists or newspaper reporters|
|to moist eyes||mist or fog that covers winter evening|
|intoned||from the heart|
|winter haze||rest for some time|
- Section B and Section E describe different times and situations of Bangabandhu’s homecoming. Below, there are sentences that match with certain parts of the texts in these two sections. Match these sentences with the parts of the texts.
Dream comes true Home, sweet home Days behind the bars Good bye Pakistan
The hero before the world press Tribute to genuine friends
We’ve been worthy End of a long waiting Tears of joy
- Work in groups. Make a timeline of the incidents mentioned in the texts on Bangabandhu’s homecoming.
- Work in groups. Suppose you are some journalists interviewing Bangabandhu at that time. Make a list of questions that you could have asked him?
- Do you agree with Bangabandhu that the Bangalees have become worthy now? Justify your argument in 200 words.
Forma-2, English For Today-9-10
10 English For Today
- Bangabandhu had three sons, two daughters, his wife, brother, housemaid, caretakers, and soldiers waiting for him. Imagine what happened after Bangabandhu had entered his home. Then complete the following story.
Dhaka was full of crowd. Inside a house, there were family members, relatives and many others. The wall clock was ticking at every second. Two daughters were getting impatient to see their father. They peeped through the windows a thousand times. Baby Russel was asking his mother, “Amma, when will Abba arrive?”. Then slowly stopped the convoy before the main entrance of the historic house at Dhanmondi 32
Lesson 3: Bangabandhu at the UN
A Work in pairs and discuss the following questions.
- What do you know about the UN?
- What do you know about Bangabandhu’s speech at the UN?
B Read the text and answer the questions that follow.
Bangabandhu’s speech at the United Nation’s General Assembly is a matter of great pride for us. He delivered the speech on 25th September 1974, just after a week Bangladesh became a member of the UN. To be a member of the UN was not an easy go as some influential countries were opposing the membership for Bangladesh. So it was another war that Bangabandhu had to wage.
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But finally, Bangabandhu won. He won not only the UN membership, but also everyone who listened to his ever first speech at the UN. It was a veni vidi vici experience for him – he came, he saw and he conquered everyone. Bangabandhu was the first person in the history of the UN to deliver a speech in Bangla, the language of the seventy-five million Bangalees, the language of the language martyrs. The poet of oration, the icon of charismatic leadership touched another milestone and so did the Bangalees through him. It was a speech that revealed Bangladesh’s stand on national and international issues before the global community.
Identifying the UN as the parliament for the humankind, Bangabandhu recognized the moment of delivering his speech historical. He mentioned that the very moment justified the century-long struggle and sacrifice of the Bangalees for self-rule, independence, dignity and co-existence along with other nations. He assured that Bangladesh would follow the ideology of mutual respect, national sovereignty, regional integrity, and non-interference into internal issues of other countries. Bangabandhu explained Bangladesh’s absolute pledge to the UN charters and reminded how the people of his country made the highest sacrifice to achieve the same. The Father of the Nation added that Bangladesh would look forward to such a world where peace and justice would take their rightful place. It was essential to justify the sacrifice of the countless martyrs.
In his speech, Bangabandhu expressed his utmost gratitude to the UN and the international community for standing beside Bangladesh with their aids and support in the reconstruction of the war-ravaged country, relocation of 10
million war-refugees who took shelter in India during the Liberation War. The leader of the country reminded the world how Bangladesh stood on the ruins and debris of a war where people were just struggling for survival. However, the repeated natural calamities were making their life harder and people even didn’t have a minimum intake of food for a day.
Going beyond Bangladesh, he expressed solidarity for all the oppressed people around the world and denounced racism, discrimination, imperialism, and the use of force to stop people’s justified movements for their rights. Referring to the struggle of the people in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Namibia, Palestine and Zimbabwe, he expressed his worry about people’s plight to achieve their own rights. The leader of the oppressed noted- when millions of people were destitute with unending miseries, only a handful of people were enjoying the
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highest luxuries. He emphasized quick measures for global financial management based on justice. Bangabandhu warned that an absence of such a system would lead the world to experience an unprecedented misery of the history.
The leader of the third world countries expressed his deep concerns over a global recession and inflation, unemployment, unequal distribution of wealth and opportunities, and the gap between the rich and the poor countries. He described how those had hit the development plans in many poor countries of the planet. To Bangabandhu, it was a global responsibility to fight these problems and take concerted efforts to put an end to these.
Before he concluded his speech, Bangabandhu declared that Bangladesh would follow the paths of togetherness, brotherhood, and mutual respect and cooperation. He expected the UN would take substantial roles in solving the prevailing human crises in the subcontinent as well as in other countries.
Bangladesh has been following the paths of Bangabandhu, the dreamer and the people’s leader, even after his death nearly five decades ago.
- Here are some words/phrases from the text the meaning of which are given below with alternatives. Choose the best answer as per the context.
- So it was another war that Bangabandhu had to wage. Here the meaning of the underlined word is –
- cause b. lose c. carry on d. pay
- It was a veni vidi vici experience for him. The meaning of the underlined phrase is –
- He came, he spoke, he won b. He spoke, he ran, he saw
- So it was another war that Bangabandhu had to wage. Here the meaning of the underlined word is –
c. He ran, he came, he won d. He came, he saw, he conquered
- Bangabandhu clarified Bangladesh’s absolute pledge to the missions of the UN charters. The meaning of the underlined word is –
- determination b. explanation c. narration d. situation
- It was essential to justify the sacrifice of the countless martyrs. The meaning of the underlined phrase is –
- number of people who sacrificed their lives.
- number of people who sacrificed their lives but not counted.
- number of people who sacrificed their lives and has been counted.
- number of people who sacrificed their lives and it’s impossible to count them.
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- Bangabandhu expressed his utmost gratitude to the UN … for standing beside … the war-ravaged country. The meaning of the underlined phrase is-
- distrated by the war b. disturbed by the war
c. distracted by the war d. damaged by the war
- He expressed his worry about people’s plight to earn their own rights. The meaning of the underlined word is –
- suffering b. flying c. crying d. fighting
- Here are some sentences that sum up the text in Section B. Match the title with each of the paragraphs except the last two. The first two paragraphs will have the same title.
- Bangabandhu’s policy to friends and neighbours
- Call for unity
- The background information
- Voice against tyranny
- Thanks giving
- Read the text in Section B again. Then work with a partner and ask and answer the following questions.
- How did Bangabandhu pay tribute to the language martyrs?
- Why did Bangabandhu seek for togetherness and global partnership?
- What foreign policy did Bangabandhu formulate in his speech?
- Do you think Bangabandhu could speak about the national, regional and international problems? Justify your argument.
- Why did the text term Bangabandhu as a leader of the oppressed and leader of the third world?
- Underline the information that you consider important to summarise the text in 200 words.
- Search the net to listen to the speech and then write an email to one of your friends giving him or her the information that you have gathered about Bangabandhu’s speech at the UN.
- Work in pairs/groups. Make a list of some questions that you would have asked if you had a chance to meet Bangabandhu after his speech at the UN.
Lesson 4: Rangtbandhu’s Relationship with other Countries
A Look si the pfctarei bdow and dbcnci the fallowing qucetiou in pair.
L a. Who do you !we in itw pictures?
b. How are they related to Bangabandhu?
c. What do you think are among them?
B Read the text,
“I have not seen the Himalayas. But, I have seen Sheikh Mujib. In personality and in courage this man is the Himalayas. I have thus had the experience of witnessing the Himalayas.”-said Fidel Castro, the then Prime Minister of Cuba in 1973, when he first met Bangabandhu. Such was the impression Bangabandhu left on the minds of world leaders. He owned the position in the heart of people across the world by his selflessness, courage and greatness.
Any country has to determine its mode of dealing with other countries of the world. The constitution of Bangladesh of 1972 clearly reflects the philosophy, Friendship for all, malice to none.” Bangabandhu led new government decided to maintain friendly ‘oo-existence’ with other countries based on this principle.
The charismatic leadership of Bangabandha inspired India to extending its support during the Liberation War even in his absence. It played an active role to convince the world leaders about sufferings of the people of Bangladesh and their right to be free. Moreover, this country supported the freedom fighters with its army fighting the Pakistani occupation forces in a frontal war, Bangabandhu was grateful to India for this. Yet it was Bangabandhu who could ask the Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on their first meeting when she would withdraw her army from Bangladesh. Mrs. Gandhi soon replied, “Any time when you wish”. Noticeably, the great leader Bangabandhu
had a strong personality to ask for any clarification from any other leader of the world! Consequently, very soon, before Bangabandhu’s next birthday, the withdrawal was completed.
Bangabandhu had an open mind to maintain good relationship with all countries irrespective of their capitalist, democratic or socialist ideologies. He left no stones unturned to make entry into different global organisations. During the period between 1972 and 1975, Bangladesh signed more than seventy treaties, agreements, memoranda and contracts with different countries of the world. Managing entry into OIC (Organisation of Islamic Cooperation) and attending its conference at Lahore filled up a major gap in diplomacy of Bangladesh. It opened opportunities to explore all the possibilities of trade and other potentials with the Islamic world.
Bangabandhu charmed common people all over the world. His speech in different summits revealed that Bangladesh did not only think about its own self, it was also concerned about injustices prevailing in the rest of the world. Bangabandhu sent a medical team to Egypt and Syria for the treatment of the war victims of Arab-Israel war. He always used to say, “Today the world is divided into two parts – the oppressors and the oppressed. And I am with the oppressed.” This kind of strong voice and wisdom made his position firm as a global leader.
He was such a leader for whom the British Prime Minister Edward Heath broke all the protocols to welcome him at Claridge’s Hotel on 8 January, 1972 while Bangabandhu was returning from Pakistani prison. His elegance was reflected in the voice of a renowned journalist, “The courage and charm that flowed from him made him a unique superman of these times.”
Bangabandhu’s philosophy of secular democracy honoured him with a firm position in the world. The period from 1972 to 1974 was actually a bright and busy era for Bangabandhu Government, when he visited many countries of Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America. He made those visits to gain support from those countries and to promote friendly relationships with them. Consequently, wherever he went, he cast a very positive influence on the leaders of those countries. Among the world leaders who admired him were India’s Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi, Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and Cuba’s President Fidel Castro. His leadership, wisdom and personal relationship with world leaders made him a successful politician of international repute.
16 English For Today
- Work in groups. Ask and answer the following questions based on the text you have read at Section B. Then write the answers individually.
- What did Fidel Castro compare Bangabandhu with? Why?
- What do you understand by ‘Friendship to all, malice to none’?
- How did India help us during our Liberation War?
- Why did Bangabandhu try to join different alliances?
- What was the purpose of Bangabandhu’s visit to different countries?
- Here are some words from the reading text. Find the opposite words and write on the blank spaces. You can take help of a dictionary. Then make meaningful sentence with each of these words.
charismatic evident harmony wisdom capitalist
- Look at the third paragraph of the passage and identify the connecting/linking words. Observe how they have connected one sentence to another. Write the purposes of their use in the next chart. The first one is done for you.
|Connecting or linking word||Place of use|
|For instance||to give example of what was said before|
- A successful man or woman has to maintain good relationship with others, for example, family members, friends, neighbours, etc. In groups discuss on ways of improving relationship with your neighbours.
- Now work individually and write a paragraph on ‘How to Maintain Good Relationship with Our Neighbours’. Use linking words as needed.
Unit Two: Pastimes
Alter we have etudted Ike unit, we will be abb to
- narrate incidents and events in a logical sequence
- participate in conversation, dissuasions and debates
- read maps, charts, graphs, eta.
Lesson 1: Have You any Favourite Pastime?
A Look at the pictures. What are the persons doing here? When do they do these kinds of activities?
B Read the conversation and answer the questions.
Tiya : Anusha, whats the matter? You’re wearing sports trousers, T-shirts, sports shoes and carrying a bagl Where are you coming horn? And you look tiredl
Anusha : Not exactly, Tiya. I’m great because I’m just coming back from the gym.
Tiya : Do you go to the gym regularly?
Anusha : Yes, I do. I go twice a week. It’s one of my favourite pastimes.
Tiya : Really! Going to the gym is your favourite pastime! You make me laugh!
Anusha : Why not? I like sports because I like to be fit I’m not a lazy person likeyoul
Tiya : What do you do there? Anusha : I do yoga.
Tiya : Don’t you have any other pastimes?
Anusha : Hmm… yes, I have. I like playing chess, painting, and reading books when I’m free. I also like photography but I’m yet to learn it What do you do in your pastime?
English For Today 19
Tiya : I like watching TV, listening to music, reading books and magazines, and playing games on the computer. I do like gardening. But we don’t have sufficient space. So I do pot planting. By the way, I don’t know much about yoga. Would
you please tell me about it?
Anusha : Sure! I’ll give you an article on it. It will help you know about yoga.
1 Why does Anusha like going to the gym? 2 What are her pastimes?
- Make a list of Tiya’s pastimes.
- How will Tiya learn about yoga?
C Read the following texts. Then check (\’ ) the statements below:
Yoga: Tap Into the Many Health Benefits
Yoga is a kind of posture and breathing exercise. It brings together physical and mental disciplines to achieve peace of body and mind, helping you relax and manage stress and anxiety. Traditional yoga puts emphasis on behavior, diet
and meditation. But if you’re just looking for better stress management—and not an entire lifestyle change—yoga can still help. Yoga trainers gradually choose easier to complex activities for practitioners. However, all practitioners do not necessarily need the same kinds of practice.
The health benefits of yoga
The potential health benefits of yoga are numerous and may include:
- Stress reduction
With its quiet, precise movements, yoga draws your focus away from your busy and chaotic day towards calm as you move your body through poses that require balance and concentration.
20 English For Today
- Increased fitness
As you learn and refine new poses, you may enjoy improved balance, flexibility, range of motion and strength. And this means you’re less likely to injure yourself in other physical endeavours or in your daily activities.
- Management of chronic health conditions
Yoga might help in a variety of health conditions, such as cancer, depression, pain, anxiety and insomnia, fatigue and mood shifts. Yoga can also help reduce heart rate and blood pressure.
- Weight loss
If you’re overweight or have eating disorder, yoga may help you make the healthy lifestyle changes necessary to gain control of your eating and reduce weight.
While you shouldn’t expect yoga to cure you or offer you 100 percent relief, it can help some health conditions when combined with standard medical treatment. And if you already enjoy good health, yoga can be an enjoyable supplement to your regular fitness routine.
D Work in pairs. Discuss these questions. Give your own opinions.
- How does exercise work on our memory?
- What other benefits can you think of from exercise?
- What is the most important benefit of exercise to you and why?
E Complete the sentences.
a Yoga is a practice of
b Traditional Yoga works through c Yoga is very effective in managing
d Through the poses of balance and concentration Yoga e results in increased fitness.
f Yoga can reduce or work for
g Yoga can control
h Yoga cannot cure 100 percent, but
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F Check (>/ ) the statements about yoga below.
a Yoga improves fitness.
c It may differ according to practitioners’ levels.
e It works both on body and mind.
g If you know yoga, you have better control over your real life hazards.
b Yoga has little to do with eating habits.
d It helps people shake off all types of physical and mental disorders,
f It helps practitioners undergo similar level of difficulty.
h It also helps you live longer.
G Read the text.
Hi, I’m Shyam. I’m from Magura. Although it’s the district headquarters, it’s a small town. I’m in grade 9 now in Chander Haat Bidyaloya. I love games and sports very much. My father was an athlete in his student life. He inspires me to follow in his footsteps and take part in games and sports or do some exercise besides my studies. So I get up early in the morning and take a walk with my father almost every day. We walk for about an hour. At school, during break 1 play kabadi, gollachhut, badminton, table tennis, and carom. Sometimes I prac tise the high jump and the long jump outside the school campus. Playing football is a passion for me. I like watching television too.
I watch sports programmes on different TV channels during my free time. I’m a fan of National Geographic, Discovery, and Animal Planet for their documentaries as they are quite interesting as well as educative. Recently my father has presented me with a camera as he was very happy with the result of my Junior School Certificate exam. When I hold the camera, I feel so excited! I wish I could be an amateur photographer in future – not to take only personal photographs at different parties but to shoot our beautiful Bangladesh. I’m sure that soon photography will be my most favourite pastime.
22 English For Today
- Work in pairs. Read the statements of the following grid. First match the parts in Column B with Column C to make complete sentences. Then make questions for the statements in Column A.
|Column A||Column B||Column C|
|What—————————— When——————————- How…………………………………… When——————————- Who…………………………………… How long————————– Why——————————— What——————————–||Despite the fact that Magura is a district headquarters,His father was a sportsmanHe encourages Shyam to participate in games and sportsShyam enjoys playing different games and sportsHe walks They walk He prefers programmes on nature and life He watches sports programmes||besides his studies. it is a small town. in his student life. during break at school.on different TV channels. f.with his father. g. for their educative values. h. for about an hour.|
- Write about your own pastime following the model in G.
Lesson 2: Reading Really Helps!
A Read the conversation and tell what Amusha is going to read. Anusha
: Tiya, hope you enjoyed the article on yoga.
: Yes, it’s great. By the way, Amusha, how did you enjoy London Olympics as a sports lover?
: People rightly say that it is the greatest show on earth. I’m still thrilled to remember what Michael Phelps and Usain Bolt have shown. Amazing!
: Right you are. They are incredible. However, I’ve got an interesting article on the Internet on Michael Phelps and Usain Bolt. You might like it and take part in the debate on who is better between these two greats. Please read it.
: Ahh… Michael Phelps and Usain Bolt! Thank you Tiya! I would love to read it.
B Read the text published in a newspaper in 2012, and answer the questions that follow.
Michael Phelps, Usain Bolt are great, but who’s better?
With the curtains closing on the 2012 London Olympics, it’s impossible not to look back and reflect on the greatest performances by Olympic athletes.
The Olympics have many memorable moments and athletes we’ll remember by name alone. The list is quite big. Michael Phelps and Usain Bolt arc the latest addition to this list of the bests. They made London Olympics stand apart. If there is any question like this: “What is the standout performance of London 2012?”, perhaps the answer is “The London Games gave us Michael Phelps vs. Usain Bolt.” The first one is an already decorated Olympian, who put the finishing touches on his great athletic careers. And another came up with a new definition of fast. Two of the most popular Olympic sports, sprinting and swimming, saw their two biggest stars captivating audiences. They’d also domi nated the 2008 Beijing Games, but Phelps and Bolt cemented their legacies in London. Phelps, the American swimmer, passed gymnast Larissa Latynia for the most Olympic medals ever. Bolt was the third man to repeat as a 100-mcter gold medalist and the first as a 200-meter gold medalist, and he broke his own Olym pic record by running the 100 meter in 9.63 seconds. Once Phelps and Bolt were back in their pool and track, the story lines changed.
Phelps is the most-decorated Olympian ever, with 22 overall medals: 18 gold, 2 silver, 2 bronze. Bolt is the most accomplished Olympic sprinter, with the unprecedented double, making clear that he’s the fastest man in the world.
But there’s a debate: Who had the better Olympics? It’d be tough to top Phelps’ eight gold medals in Beijing, but what if we’re only talking London?
London was Phelps’ grand finale. He won four golds and two silvers in seven events, and he says he’ll never race again.
London was Bolt’s chance to prove he’s still the greatest. Bolt won six gold medals in six Olympic finals. He is the first man ever in the history of the modem Games to sweep the 100 and 200 in back-to-back Olympics. Not to mention the addition of back-to-back relay golds.
And Bolt became a legend, in his own words. Phelps already was. Bolt is just 25 years old, so there is no telling how long he can be on top of the sprinting world. What if he decides to “retire” from sprinting to focus on the 400 meters, just to break another world record or two? It would be amazing and entirely possible for him to accomplish.
Who had the better 2012 Games? You tell us, let the debate begin.
[Adapted from USA Today, Sports, London 2012]
- What makes London Olympic 2012 exceptionally sensational?
- How are Phelps and Bolt brilliantly similar and different?
- Between these two Olympians who has bagged the highest honour within the same time frame?
- What is special in Bolt so far?
- How does Bolt evaluate himself ?
C Make two flow charts on Michael Phelps and Usain Bolt. The first two are done for you.
the greatest swimmer ever
* * *
the most successful sprinter
D Read the following text and complete the blank spaces with the appropriate words from the box below.
answer sprinter Olympians speed Olympics swimmer debate legends retired prove histories biggest
These are the stories of two most successful Olympians of history. While one is famous as the fastest the other is celebrated as the fastest of the world. However, both are unparalleled for theirin their own field. They made history in the Beijing They have made newer in the London Olympics too. They are the living now. Though Phelps hasfrom his race, Bolt has prospects tohimself in the next Olympic as well. After theshow on earth is over in London, this will go on— who is better. Only time will this question.
Forma-4, English For Today-9-10
26 English For Today
E Work in pairs. Decide who is better between these two champions.
Give reasons in favour of your decisions.
Lesson 3: Change in Pastime
A Read the text.
Childhood outdoor pastimes ’in decline’
Traditional childhood pastimes of climbing trees and playing conkers are in decline, according to a survey by the RSPB (Royal Society for the Protection of Birds). It’s a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales.
The survey shows that people under 34 recall far fewer such childhood outdoor experiences than people over 55, according to a survey by RSPB.
People were asked which of the twelve childhood outdoor experiences they could remember. The answer included making dens, daisy chains, climbing trees, playing conkers and feeding birds. Four out of five boys climbed trees and the same number of girls made daisy chains. But the survey showed the numbers declining among the newer generations.
Some 15% more of those aged over 55 had these outdoor experiences in their childhood, compared with those between 15-34 years old.
Some 92% of the public agreed that experiences of nature were still important to children, and
82% agreed that schools should play a role in providing them to all children.
The survey has highlighted the positive impact of contact with nature on a child’s education, health,
wellbeing and social skills. At the same time, there has been a decline in these opportunities, with negative consequences for children, families and society-a condition now known as nature deficit disorder.
Mike Clarke, chief executive of the RSPB, will meet parliament members to urge the government to join other organisations in providing children with first hand experiences of the natural environment. . . . “We believe this guidance should include the many positive impacts to children of having contact with nature and learning outside the classroom.”
[Adapted from BBC news 6 September 2010]
English For Today 27
- Read the following words and write their meanings as you understand them from the context. If you don’t understand, check the words from a dictionary.
dens decline highlight
- Read the following statement taken from the text in A and say what the subject of comparison is. Find out the other comparison in the text above.
People under 34 recall fewer such childhood outdoor experiences than people over 55, according to the survey by Ipsos Mori for RSPB.
D Do you agree that if children have more contacts with nature, they may have a positive impact on them? Make a list of the benefits or harms they may have if taken to nature frequently.
E Speak to the senior citizens in your home or community. Ask them about their pastime activities and take notes on them. Then write a paragraph in the style of the text given in Section A to show the differences. Also mention why these differences have taken place.
28 English For Today
Lesson 4: Change in Pastimes in Bangladesh
- Tiya and Anusha decided to make a survey on students’ pastimes in their class. After the survey they presented their findings in a chart. Look at the chart and read how they explain their findings.
|Items||For classes 9-10||For classes 5-6|
|Playing games and sports||22.3%||9.2%|
|Chatting with friends||13.7% 6.7%|
|Reading books or magazines||12.9%||11.7%|
|Attending social programs such as music, recitations or debates||9.1%||7.8%|
|Playing games on computers||8.2% 20.9%|
Tiya: Hello everyone! My name is Tiya. My friend, Anusha and I are going to do a presentation on Pastime Habits of Classes 9 and 10 students in our school. There are 120 students, 60 in class 9 and 60 in class 10. The classes have gender equity. Each class has 30 male and 30 female students. The survey shows that
- percent of students in classes 9-10 like games and sports as their most favourite pastime, which is the 4th option given by classes 5-6 students. Watching television is the second choice (17.2%) by the first group in contrast to 31.2% of the second group. It is noteworthy that watching television is the first choice of the second group. A considerable number (13.7%) of 9-10 students like to chat with their friends and thus it becomes the third popular choice in the chart while this becomes one of the less important choices by the younger kids. Only 6.7% of the kids take it as their first priority. It’s interesting that both the groups like reading books. 12.9% of students of classes 9-10 take it as their favourite pastime. The number is 11.7% for Classes 5-6 students. Besides, gardening is voted (10.7% of students) to be the 5th preference by the grown up
English For Today 29
group though it is not that much liked by the younger group. Only 6.1 % of the young kids are involved in it. This is interesting that though the higher number of students in classes 9-10 prefer attending social programs (9.1%) than students of classes 5-6 (7.8%), yet as a choice it is preferred by the latter group. It is the 5 th choice for them while to the older group it is the 6th. Young kids have greater fascination for playing games on the computers (20.9% like it as their first choice). The chart shows that as the kids grow up, they lose their passion for computer games. According to the chart the ratio declines to 8.2% from 20.9% when the kids are students of classes 9-10. Finally, it can be said that the influence of television has impact on both the groups but the more students grow up, the more they opt for fields/ gym.
- What are the gender policy of the surveyors?
- What are the survey findings regarding watching television?
- Which age group is more interested in socializing with others?
- According to the chart, how do the kids change their pastimes when they are grown up? What changes docs the chart for 9-10 reflect?
- Work in groups. Make a chart on the pastimes of the students in your class and present it to your class.
Lesson 5: Pastimes Vary
A Read the conversation. What is it about? Do you agree or disagree?
Tiya : Anusha, I really wonder how pastimes vary from generation to generation.
Anusha Tiya Anusha
: Oh yes. I can tell you how.
: Although I don’t know exactly, 1 think time is a big factor.
: You are right. Time changes many things. It changes our tastes and abilities. Technology has roles too. Look, there was a time when playing in the fields was very popular because we had many open fields around. Going to a neighbours’ houses and hanging out in groups were popular pastimes as well. You won’t see these activities now. The process of urbanization, the aggression of satellite television and people’s dependence on technology have changed our lifestyle. Now boys and girls of urban and semi-urban areas are more dependent on the computer for social networking, video games, or computer assisted programmes.
30 English For Today
Tiya : Right. But how do you know all these things, Anusha? Anusha : Oh. I read an interesting article on people’s changing
pastimes. It analyses the issue through a graph. Here it is. Read,
and I’m sure you will enjoy it.
B Read the article. Underline the words/expressions used in the article to show the changes in the data. The first one is done for you in the text.
Young people’s changing attitude to pastimes
There is change in people’s preferences for pastimes. A recent survey shows that during the last twenty years, teenagers have gone through significant changes in choosing their pastimes. The survey results are presented through a graph which shows that there is a steady rise in young people’s tendency to watch TV. In 1990,41 % of teenagers liked watching TV which increased to 48% in the next ten years and it further increased to 52% in the next decade. Unfortunately, the picture is grim in terms of young people’s attraction to field games and sports. While 50% of youngsters opted for games and sports in the 1990s, the figure was 12% less after a decade at 38%. Unfortunately the falling tendency persisted through the next ten years and by 2010 it came down to 25%. Though the young people have dissociated themselves noticeably from games and sports, there is a sharp and steady rise in their association with online or computer assisted programmes. In 1990 when the users of online or computer for pastimes were only 9%, in 2000 the number nearly doubled and reached 14%, and with a rapid increase in the next ten years it shot up to 23%.
English For Today 31
The survey also explains the reasons for this change. It says that television has become a part of everyday life even to the underprivileged section of society. This has resulted in larger number of young people opting for watching TV as one of the most favourite pastimes. The increasing urbanization has reduced the number of open fields. Therefore, there is a fall in selecting games
and sports as favourite pastimes, though it’s not a good news for the country. And the reason for selecting the computer assisted or online programmes is that computer technology is getting cheaper, easier and more popular every day. Indeed, our young generations are stepping into the e-world.
C Now work in groups and analyse the following graph.
Elderly people’s changing attitude to pastimes in a community