The aim of secondary education is to make the learners fit for entry into higher education by flourishing their latent talents and prospects with a view to building the nation with the spirit of the Language Movement and the Liberation War. To make the learners skilled and competent citizens of the country based on the economic, social, cultural and environmental settings is also an important issue of secondary education. The textbooks of secondary level have been written and compiled according to the revised curriculum 2012 in accordance with the aims and objectives of National Education Policy 2010. Contents and presentations of the textbooks have been selected according to the moral and humanistic values of Bengali tradition and culture and the spirit of Liberation War 1971 ensuring equal dignity for all irrespective of caste and creed of different religions and sex.

The present government is committed to ensure the successful implementation   of Vision 2021. Honorable Prime Minister, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina expressed her firm determination to make the country free from illiteracy and instructed the concerned authority to give free textbooks to every student of the country. National Curriculum and Textbook Board started to distribute textbooks free of cost since 2010 according to her instruction.

In the era of globalization, English is one of the most powerful tools for pursuing higher studies, using technology, inter-cultural and inter-personal communications, and job markets at home and abroad. The curriculum makes it explicit that language learning will be graded and contents will reflect real life situations as the ultimate purpose of language learning is to communicate. The English for Today textbooks have been developed to help students attain competency in all four language skills, i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing. The contents and illustrations of this textbook have been developed in order to suit the learners’ age and cognitive level.

The textbook has been revised and re-edited by prominent educationists to make it learner friendly   in 2017 and 2020. I thank sincerely all for their intellectual labour who were involved in the process of revision, writing, editing, art and design of the textbook.

Prof. Narayan Chandra Saha
National Curriculum and Textbook Board, Bangladesh

Unit One: Father of the Nation

Father of nation

Learning outcomes

After we have studied the unit, we will be able to

  • read and understand texts
  • narrate incidents and events in a logical sequence
  • participate in conversations, discussions, and debates
  • tell stories

Lesson 1: Baragabiaadhiu’s Family in 1971

A        Look at tta pktarea betaw and dl*co» the followtag gaesifau ill pete

  1. Who can you see in the pictures?
  2. What do you know about them?
  3. Where wwe these people during the War?
father of nation

B Read the text and awer the questions that follow.

It was the night of 25th March, 1971. There was a full of quictnces at Bangabandhu’s home at Dhanmondi Road No. 32 throughout the day. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his family members could apprehend that something tragic was going to happen. Gunshots were heard around the city. Bangabandhu’s eldest son Sheikh Kamal was out of home for forming barricades against the Pakistan Army who had been killing people indiscriminately that night. Bangabandhu decided to send the girls of the family to a safer place for the night and he gave their responsibility to his son in law Mr. Wazed Miah. Bangabandhu’s daughter Sheikh Hasina, who was expecting a baby soon along with her sister Sheikh Rehana and her cousin Farida were sent to a house at Road no. 15, Dhanmondi for that night. Bangabandhu’s wife Begum Fazilatunnesa Mujib, stayed with him.

Just before midnight, Bangabandhu sent the declaration of Independence to Mr. Zahur Ahmed Chowdhury at Chattogram via wireless. At the darkest part of that night, the Pakistan Army surrounded his home and started firing at random. The situation agitated Bangabandhu much and he asked them to stop. But, soon he was instructed to get ready to go with them. Begum Mujib packed his necessary belongings. After Bangabandhu left, she was at a loss what to do and where to go with her children. However, being a supportive wife of the great leader all 2022

through her life, she soon pulled   up   her   mental   strength.   But,   her   anxiety continued till the end of the war.

The next day Begum Mujib had to leave   House   No.   32   with   her children   and other members of her home. During the next couple of months, they moved from one shelter to another in search of a safer place. During their stay in those places, some people came forward to helping them   while   some   refused   to   give   them shelter for fear of   their   own   safety.   When   their   provision   ran   short,   Sheikh Kamal, who had already joined the Liberation War, came to them in disguise and delivered some money. Some very close people also supported   the   family   with money and food stuff.

So far   the   family   members   were   ignorant   about   Bangabandhu’s   condition. Suddenly they came to know that he was alive and had been taken to Pakistan. Begum Mujib started to keep contact with Awami League leaders. But soon the family was taken to Dhanmondi, House   No.   18   by the Pakistan Army and kept under house arrest. However, people would come to their home with valuable information in disguise of vendors; also some would throw pieces of waste paper with important information written on them.

In the month of May, the same year, Pakistan Army set fire to Bangabandhu’s Tungipara home in front of his parents. A young man from the village protested the evil deed and was shot dead. Both the parents of Bangabandhu   fell   ill   in October and were admitted   to   the   PG   Hospital.   Begum   Mujib   and   her   family were allowed to visit them two or three times a week for one hour. However, that created the opportunity for them to establish a better   communication   with   the freedom fighters.

Begum Mujib was extremely worried about her children, especially her   daughter Sheikh Hasina,   because   of   her   health   condition.   However,   she   was   not   allowed by the Pakistani rulers to be with   her   daughter,   when   she   was   admitted   to hospital. Mr. Wazed Miah and   Bangabandhu’s   second   son   Sheikh   Jamal accompanied Sheikh Hasina to the   hospital.   Bangabandhu’s   youngest   sister, pretending to be a hospital   attendant,   entered   the   hospital   and   looked   after her niece. Sheikh Hasina was blessed with a baby boy on 27 July who was later named Sajeeb Wazed Joy. As the Pakistan Army often   used   to   threaten   Sheikh Jamal that they would hang him   upside   down,   he,   finding   an   opportunity,   fled from the hospital and joined the freedom fighters.

Finally the Victory day arrived! There was joy everywhere! But,   Bangabandhu’s family   was   yet   to   be   freed   from   captivity.   The   Pakistani   occupational   forces were still cordoning Bangabandhu’s house and firing at people rushing over

there chanting ‘Joy Bangla’, the   invigorating   slogan   of   the   Bangalees.   But   they fled the next morning when the Indian Army came to rescue the family. Sheikh Jamal relumed   home   in   the   afternoon   while   Sheikh   Kamal   returned   home   the next   day.   Nevertheless,   the   biggest   anxiety    of    the    family    persisted- Bangabandhu was yet to be released from Pakistani prison and   they   didn’t know when that great moment would arrive and how.

(Source:   Sheikh   Rehanar   sathe    ekanto    alapocarita:    Antaranga    Aloy Bangahandhur Poribar by Sanchita)

B List the five ways how the Pakistan Army tortured Bangabandhu’s family.

C Divide into pairs and tell the sufferings of Bangabandhu’s family

during Liberation War in your own words (Do not look at the book).

D Answer the following questions. First discuss in groups of four, then write the answers individually.

  1. Why was the family anxious on the 25th March night in 1971?
  2. Where did Bangabandhu send the girls on that night?
  3. How would the family communicate with people or freedom fighters while they were under house arrest?
  4. How did the Pakistan Army scare Sheikh Jamal? How did Sheikh Jamal manage to flee from captivity?
  5. How do you explain Bangabandhu’s family’s contribution to Liberation War?

E Discuss if the sentences are True/False. Give correct information if any statement is false.

  1. Begum Mujib went to a safer place at Dhanmandi at the night on 25 March, 1971.
  2. Bangabandhu had declared the independence of Bangladesh before he was arrested by Pakistan Army.
  3. Nobody stood beside the family of Bangabandhu during Liberation War.
  4. Bangabandhu’s parents became very sick soon after the Pakistan Army had set fire to their home at Tungipara.
  5. After Liberation War was over, Sheikh Kamal and Sheikh Jamal both returned home on the same day.

F Identify   the   sentences   using   ‘however’   in   the   text   along   with   their immediate preceding sentences. Discuss in pairs why ‘however’ is used between the sentences.

Note that ‘however’ is used to show contrast or contradictions and it is accompanied by a comma.

G Write five more pairs of sentences using ‘however’.

H    Group    work:    Discuss   the    sufferings   of    people    during    the    Liberation War. Then write a paragraph on that.

Lesson 2: The Tale of Homecoming

Lesson 2: The Tale of Homecoming

A Work in pairs to discuss the following questions.

  1. What do you see in the picture?
  2. Who do you identify in the picture?
  3. Do you find any connection between the picture and the title of the lesson? How?

6                                                                                                                                                 English For Today

B Read the story of Bangabandhu’s homecoming to answer the questions that follow.

Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was arrested by   the   Pakistani   army immediately after his declaration of   independence   at   the   first   hour   of   the   26 March 1971. He was taken to Pakistan as a captive and imprisoned there in a small cell for capital punishment until 7th January, 1972. Even a grave was dug in front of his cell but Mujib was fearless. He knew nothing would stop   the Bangalees to gain independence. In fact, his name and independence became synonymous. So the whole world was awaiting breathlessly to witness   his homecoming. And he had a grand homecoming indeed narrated by eminent columnist and   writer,   Syed   Badrul   Ahsan.   An   abridged   version   of   that   narration is presented below.

In the evening of 7 January, 1972; Bangabandhu   left   Chaklala   Airport   in Rawalpindi, from where he would fly to London. Nine months   earlier   he   was brought to Pakistan as a prisoner with little hope to return. And now he was free to go home. Pakistan, as soon   as   the PIA   aircraft took   off,   was   finally   behind him. …

Early in the morning on   8   January   1972,   Bangabandhu   arrived   at   Heathrow Airport. News of Bangabandhu’s   arrival   in   London   spread   quickly.   Journalists, the general public, British officials and   politicians   and   Bangalee   residents   in   the city made their way to Hotel Claridges. News bulletins   on   the   BBC   and   other media   organizations    made    note    of    Bangabandhu’s    arrival    in    their    headlines. By early afternoon, the Father of the Nation had met the British Prime Minister Edward Heath and the Leader of the opposition Harold Wilson.   Then   he   called Dhaka and for the first time since his   arrest   by   the   Pakistan   Army   in   March, spoke to his family. A long conversation   then   followed   with   Prime   Minister Tajuddin Ahmad. The conversations with his family and   with   Tajuddin   were emotional affairs, but he now had a clear picture of all that had happened in his absence in Bangladesh. It gave him immense pleasure knowing that he had truly liberated his people.

Bangabandhu’s opening words at a crowded news conference that   evening   at Claridges was a touch poetic.   He   expressed   the   unbounded   joy   of   freedom achieved by his people in an epic liberation struggle. Bangladesh, he told the

English For Today                                                                                                           7

crowd, was a reality and would fulfill its obligations as part of the international community. He made   it clear that those who were involved in different types of crimes including genocide would be trialled by his government.

  • Work in pairs. Write on the blank spaces how you would express these words/phrases in your   own   language   and   then   make   sentences   with them.

declaration of independence                 capital punishment            (to) await breathlessly

(to) make their way                                   emotional affairs                    immense

touch poetic                                          unbounded joy                      genocide

D Talk about the questions.

  1. What made Bangabandhu so bold while in the prison?
    1. How did time change in Bangabandhu’s life within the nine months in a Pakistani prison?
    1. How did London welcome Bangabandhu?
    1. Do you agree with the statement that Bangabandhu was excited as well as relieved from long anxiety in London? Why/Why not?
  2. Read     the     following     texts     by     the     same     author     that     describes Bangabandhu’s a few more hours of journey towards home.

Bangabandhu left London for   Dhaka   on   the   9   January   evening in 1972. On the way he would stopover in Delhi. He was welcomed at Delhi’s Palam Airport in the morning of 10 January by President V.V. Giri, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, West   Bengal   politician   and   Chief    Minister   Siddhartha   Shankar   Ray   and   the chiefs of the Indian armed forces. Bangabandhu stayed   in   Delhi   for   about   two hours. During this time, he addressed   a   public   rally   and   mesmerized   everyone. There he wholeheartedly thanked Mrs. Gandhi, the people   and   the   politicians   of India for the tremendous   help   they   had   provided   to   Bangladesh   and   its   ten million refugees.

8                                                                                                                                                English For Today

Then it was on to Dhaka, where millions of people had begun to crowd the route that their leader would pass and the Race Course Maidan where the leader would deliver a speech before going home. On the tarmac at Tejgaon Airport, soldiers of the Indian army   and   the   Mukti   Bahini   were   on   standby   to   present Bangladesh’s President with a guard of honour. Members of the wartime cabinet waited in the winter sun, as did a horde of newsmen. Sometime after 1:30 pm the Comet   aircraft   made   available   to   Bangabandhu    by    the    British    government landed in Dhaka.

As soon as the doors of the aircraft opened, Bangabandhu appeared. It was clear he had lost weight due to imprisonment for   nearly   ten   months   in   a   Pakistani prison. A big smile appeared on his face as he swept back his hair with his right hand. Prime Minister   Tajuddin   Ahmad   then   moved   forward   and   buried   his   head in his leader’s chest. Both men broke down. Their tears soon led to moist eyes in nearly everyone   else   present   around   them.   Once   the   formalities   at   the   airport were completed, the Father of the Nation climbed on a board of an open truck, with   the   Mujibnagar   government   figures   and    the    student    leaders    crowding around him. He headed for the Race Course.

The two-mile stretch of road would take   the   procession   almost   three   hours   to cover. At the Race Course, Bangabandhu wept remembering the sacrifices of the Bangalees had made in the war against Pakistan. He told how the military junta had tried to intimidate him during his trial. He said, “I told them I am a Bangalee and a Muslim, who only dies once. I would walk   the   gallows   with   head   held high.” The Father of the Nation remarked, the Bangalees had become the golden children of the   Golden   Bengal.   Quoting   the   poet Rabindranath Tagore, who once had complained   that   the   people   of   Bengal   had   remained   mere   Bangalees   but were yet to become true human beings.   Mujib   told   the   jubilant   crowd   that   the poet had   been   proved   wrong.   “Come   back,   O   poet”,   he   intoned   dramatically, “and see how your Bangalees are today transformed into worthy men.”

Moments later, as dusk   and   a   winter   haze   settled   over   Dhaka,   Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman made his way back to his family. They had been waiting for him at the house in Dhanmondi Road 32 where he had left his family before the Pakistan Army arrested him on the eve of the Liberation War.

English For Today                                                                                                           9

  • Match   the   words/phrases   in   Column   with   the   meanings   in   Column   B. One is done   for   you.   After   matching,   make   sentences   using   them relating to your life.
Column AColumn B
on the way \a group of army personnel who rules a country
stopoverto fill eyes with tears
wholeheartedlyin course of a journey
tarmacarea from which planes take off at an airport
horde of newsmena group of journalists or newspaper reporters
to moist eyesmist or fog that covers winter evening
military juntahypnotized
intonedfrom the heart
winter hazerest for some time
  • Section B and Section E describe different times and situations of Bangabandhu’s   homecoming.   Below,   there   are    sentences    that    match with certain parts of the texts in   these   two   sections.   Match   these sentences with the parts of the texts.

Dream comes true Home, sweet home Days behind the bars Good bye Pakistan

The hero before the world press Tribute to genuine friends

We’ve been worthy End of a long waiting Tears of joy

  • Work in groups. Make a timeline of the   incidents   mentioned   in   the texts on Bangabandhu’s homecoming.
  • Work in groups. Suppose you   are   some   journalists   interviewing Bangabandhu at that time.   Make   a   list   of   questions   that   you   could have asked him?
  • Do   you   agree   with   Bangabandhu   that   the    Bangalees    have    become worthy now? Justify your argument in 200 words.

Forma-2, English For Today-9-10

10                                                                                                                                              English For Today

  • Bangabandhu   had   three   sons,   two   daughters,   his   wife,   brother, housemaid, caretakers, and soldiers waiting for him. Imagine   what happened   after   Bangabandhu   had   entered    his    home.    Then   complete the following story.

Dhaka was full of crowd. Inside a house, there were family members, relatives and many others. The wall clock was ticking at every second. Two daughters were getting impatient to see their father. They peeped   through   the   windows   a   thousand times. Baby Russel was asking his mother, “Amma, when will Abba arrive?”. Then slowly stopped the convoy before the main entrance of the historic house at Dhanmondi 32

Lesson 3: Bangabandhu at the UN

A Work in pairs and discuss the following questions.

  1. What do you know about the UN?
    1. What do you know about Bangabandhu’s speech at the UN?

B Read the text and answer the questions that follow.

Bangabandhu at the UN

Bangabandhu’s speech at the United Nation’s   General   Assembly   is   a   matter   of great pride for us. He delivered the speech on 25th September 1974, just after a week Bangladesh became a member of the UN. To be a member of the UN was not an easy go as some influential countries were opposing the membership for Bangladesh. So it was another war that Bangabandhu had to wage.

English For Today                                                                                                          11

But finally, Bangabandhu won. He won not only the UN membership, but also everyone who listened to his ever first speech at the UN. It was a veni vidi vici experience for him – he came, he saw and he conquered everyone. Bangabandhu was the first person in the history of the UN to deliver a speech in Bangla, the language of the seventy-five million Bangalees,   the   language   of   the   language martyrs. The poet of oration, the icon of charismatic leadership touched another milestone and so did the Bangalees through him. It was a speech that revealed Bangladesh’s stand on   national   and   international   issues   before   the   global community.

Identifying   the   UN   as   the   parliament   for   the    humankind,    Bangabandhu recognized the moment of delivering   his   speech   historical.   He   mentioned   that the   very   moment   justified   the   century-long   struggle   and   sacrifice   of    the Bangalees for self-rule, independence, dignity and co-existence along with   other nations.   He   assured   that   Bangladesh   would   follow   the   ideology   of    mutual respect,    national    sovereignty,    regional    integrity,    and    non-interference    into internal    issues    of    other    countries.    Bangabandhu     explained     Bangladesh’s absolute pledge to the UN charters and reminded   how   the   people of his country made the highest sacrifice to achieve the same. The Father of the Nation added that Bangladesh would look forward to such   a   world   where   peace   and   justice would take their rightful place. It was essential to justify the sacrifice   of   the countless martyrs.

In his speech, Bangabandhu expressed his utmost gratitude to the UN and the international   community   for   standing   beside   Bangladesh   with   their   aids   and support in the reconstruction of the war-ravaged country, relocation of 10

million war-refugees who took shelter in India   during   the   Liberation   War.   The leader of the country reminded the world how Bangladesh stood on the ruins and debris of a war where people were just struggling for   survival.   However,   the repeated natural calamities were making their life harder   and   people   even   didn’t have a minimum intake of food for a day.

Going beyond Bangladesh, he expressed solidarity for   all   the   oppressed   people around the world and denounced   racism,   discrimination,   imperialism,   and   the use of force to stop people’s justified movements for their rights. Referring to the struggle of the people in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Namibia, Palestine and Zimbabwe, he expressed his worry about   people’s   plight   to   achieve   their   own rights.   The   leader   of   the   oppressed   noted-   when   millions   of   people   were destitute with unending miseries, only a handful of people were enjoying the

12                                                                                                                                              English For Today

highest luxuries. He emphasized quick measures for global   financial   management based on justice. Bangabandhu warned that an   absence   of   such   a   system   would lead the world to experience an unprecedented misery of the history.

The leader of the third world countries expressed his deep concerns over a global recession and inflation, unemployment, unequal distribution of   wealth   and opportunities, and the gap between the   rich   and   the poor countries.   He described how those had hit the development plans in many poor countries of the planet. To Bangabandhu, it was a global responsibility to fight these problems and take concerted efforts to put an end to these.

Before he concluded his speech,   Bangabandhu   declared   that   Bangladesh   would follow   the   paths   of   togetherness,   brotherhood,   and   mutual    respect    and cooperation. He expected the UN would take substantial roles in   solving   the prevailing human crises in the subcontinent as well as in other countries.

Bangladesh has been following the paths of Bangabandhu, the dreamer and the people’s leader, even after his death nearly five decades ago.

  • Here are some words/phrases from   the   text   the   meaning   of   which   are given below with alternatives.   Choose   the   best   answer   as   per   the context.
    • So it was another war that Bangabandhu had to wage. Here the meaning of the underlined word is –
      • cause            b. lose                    c. carry on                d. pay
    • It was a veni vidi vici experience for him. The meaning of the underlined phrase is –
      • He came, he spoke, he won b. He spoke, he ran, he saw

c. He ran, he came, he won d. He came, he saw, he conquered

  • Bangabandhu clarified Bangladesh’s absolute pledge to the missions of the UN charters. The meaning of the underlined word is –
    • determination b. explanation c. narration d. situation
    • It was essential to justify the sacrifice of the countless martyrs. The meaning of the underlined phrase is –
      • number of people who sacrificed their lives.
      • number of people who sacrificed their lives but not counted.
      • number of people who sacrificed their lives and has been counted.
      • number of people who sacrificed their lives and it’s impossible to count them.

English For Today                                                                                                          13

  •   Bangabandhu expressed his utmost gratitude to   the   UN   …   for   standing beside …   the   war-ravaged   country.   The   meaning   of   the   underlined   phrase is-
    • distrated by the war                                       b. disturbed by the war

c. distracted by the war                                     d. damaged by the war

  • He expressed his worry about people’s plight to earn their own rights. The meaning of the underlined word is –
    • suffering                 b. flying                      c. crying                  d. fighting
  • Here are some sentences that sum   up   the   text   in   Section   B.   Match   the title with each of the paragraphs except the last two. The first two paragraphs will have the same title.
    • Bangabandhu’s policy to friends and neighbours
    • Call for unity
    • The background      information
    • Voice against tyranny
    • Thanks giving
  • Read the text in Section B again.   Then   work   with   a   partner   and   ask and answer the following questions.
    • How did Bangabandhu pay tribute to the language martyrs?
    • Why did Bangabandhu seek for togetherness and global partnership?
    • What foreign policy did Bangabandhu formulate in his speech?
    •   Do you think Bangabandhu could speak about the national, regional and international problems? Justify your argument.
    • Why did the text term Bangabandhu as a leader of the oppressed and leader of the third world?
  • Underline   the   information   that    you    consider    important    to    summarise the text in 200 words.
  • Search the net to listen to the speech and then write an email to one of your friends giving him or her the information that you have gathered about Bangabandhu’s speech at the UN.
  • Work in   pairs/groups.   Make   a   list   of   some   questions   that   you   would have asked if you had a chance to meet Bangabandhu after his speech at the UN.


Lesson    4:     Rangtbandhu’s     Relationship     with     other     Countries

A Look si the pfctarei bdow and dbcnci the fallowing qucetiou in pair.

L a. Who do you !we in itw pictures?
b. How are they related to Bangabandhu?
c. What do you think are among them?


B Read the text,

“I have not seen the Himalayas. But, I have seen Sheikh Mujib. In personality and in courage this man is the Himalayas. I have thus had the experience of witnessing the Himalayas.”-said Fidel Castro, the then Prime Minister of Cuba in 1973, when he first met Bangabandhu. Such was the impression Bangabandhu left on the minds of world leaders. He owned the position in the heart of people across the world by his selflessness, courage and greatness.

Any country has to determine its mode of dealing with other countries of the world. The constitution of Bangladesh of 1972 clearly reflects the philosophy, Friendship for all, malice to none.” Bangabandhu led new government decided to maintain friendly ‘oo-existence’ with other countries based on this principle.

The charismatic leadership of Bangabandha inspired India to extending its support during the Liberation War even in his absence. It played an active role to convince the world leaders about sufferings of the people of Bangladesh and their right to be free. Moreover, this country supported the freedom fighters with its army fighting the Pakistani occupation forces in a frontal war, Bangabandhu was grateful to India for this. Yet it was Bangabandhu who could ask the Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on their first meeting when she would withdraw her army from Bangladesh. Mrs. Gandhi soon replied, “Any time when you wish”. Noticeably, the great leader Bangabandhu

had a strong personality to ask for any clarification from any other leader of the world! Consequently, very   soon,   before   Bangabandhu’s   next   birthday,   the withdrawal was completed.

Bangabandhu had an open mind to maintain good relationship with all countries irrespective   of   their   capitalist,   democratic   or   socialist   ideologies.   He    left   no stones unturned to   make   entry   into   different   global   organisations.   During   the period between 1972 and 1975, Bangladesh signed more than seventy treaties, agreements, memoranda and contracts with   different   countries   of   the   world. Managing    entry    into    OIC    (Organisation   of   Islamic   Cooperation)   and   attending its conference at Lahore filled up a major gap in diplomacy   of   Bangladesh.   It opened opportunities to explore all the possibilities   of   trade   and   other   potentials with the Islamic world.

Bangabandhu   charmed   common   people   all   over   the   world.   His   speech    in different summits revealed that Bangladesh did not only think about its own self, it was also concerned about injustices prevailing in the rest of the   world. Bangabandhu sent a medical team   to   Egypt   and   Syria   for   the   treatment   of   the war victims of Arab-Israel war. He always used to   say,   “Today   the   world   is divided into two parts – the oppressors and the oppressed. And I am with the oppressed.” This kind of strong voice and wisdom made his position firm as a global leader.

He was such   a   leader for whom the British   Prime   Minister Edward   Heath   broke all the protocols to welcome him at Claridge’s Hotel on 8 January, 1972 while Bangabandhu was returning from   Pakistani   prison.   His   elegance   was   reflected   in the voice of a   renowned   journalist,   “The   courage   and   charm   that   flowed   from him made him a unique superman of these times.”

Bangabandhu’s philosophy   of   secular   democracy   honoured   him   with   a   firm position in the world. The period from 1972 to 1974 was actually a bright and busy era for Bangabandhu Government, when he visited many countries of Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America. He   made   those   visits   to   gain   support   from those countries and to promote friendly relationships with them.   Consequently, wherever he went, he cast a very positive influence on the   leaders   of   those countries.   Among   the   world   leaders   who   admired   him   were   India’s   Prime Minister   Mrs.   Indira   Gandhi,   Palestinian   leader   Yasser   Arafat   and   Cuba’s President Fidel   Castro.   His   leadership,   wisdom   and   personal   relationship   with world leaders made him a successful politician of international repute.

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  • Work in groups. Ask and answer the following questions based on the text you have read at Section B. Then write the answers individually.
    • What did Fidel Castro compare Bangabandhu with? Why?
    • What do you understand by ‘Friendship to all, malice to none’?
    • How did India help us during our Liberation War?
    • Why did Bangabandhu try to join different alliances?
    • What was the purpose of Bangabandhu’s visit to different countries?
  • Here are some words from   the   reading   text.   Find   the   opposite   words and write on the blank spaces. You can take help of a dictionary. Then make meaningful sentence with each of these words.

charismatic evident harmony wisdom capitalist

  • Look at the third paragraph of the passage and identify the connecting/linking words. Observe how they   have   connected   one sentence to another. Write the purposes of their use in the next chart. The first one is done for you.
Connecting or linking wordPlace of use
For instanceto give example of what was said before
  • A successful man or woman has to   maintain   good   relationship   with others, for example, family   members,   friends,   neighbours,   etc.   In groups discuss on ways   of   improving   relationship   with   your neighbours.
  • Now work individually and write a   paragraph   on   ‘How   to   Maintain Good Relationship with   Our   Neighbours’.   Use   linking   words   as needed.

Unit Two: Pastimes

Unit Two  Pastimes

Learning outcome

Alter we have etudted Ike unit, we will be abb to

  • narrate incidents and events in a logical sequence
  • participate in conversation, dissuasions and debates
  • read maps, charts, graphs, eta.

Lesson 1: Have You any Favourite Pastime?

A Look at the pictures. What are the persons doing here? When do they do these kinds of activities?


B Read the conversation and answer the questions.

Tiya : Anusha, whats the matter? You’re wearing sports trousers, T-shirts, sports shoes and carrying a bagl Where are you coming horn? And you look tiredl

Anusha : Not exactly, Tiya. I’m great because I’m just coming back from the gym.

Tiya             : Do you go to the gym regularly?

Anusha        : Yes, I do. I go twice a week. It’s one of my favourite pastimes.

Tiya              : Really! Going to the gym is your favourite pastime! You make me laugh!

Anusha : Why not? I like sports because I like to be fit I’m not a lazy person likeyoul

Tiya              : What do you do there? Anusha : I do yoga.

Tiya             : Don’t you have any other pastimes?

Anusha : Hmm… yes, I have. I like playing chess, painting, and reading books when I’m free. I also like photography but I’m yet to learn it What do you do in your pastime?

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Tiya              : I like watching TV,   listening   to   music,   reading   books   and magazines, and   playing   games   on   the   computer.   I   do   like gardening. But we   don’t   have   sufficient   space.   So   I   do   pot planting.   By   the   way,   I   don’t   know   much   about   yoga.   Would

you please tell me about it?

Anusha         : Sure! I’ll give you an article on it. It will help you know about yoga.



1 Why does Anusha like going to the gym? 2 What are her pastimes?

  • Make a list of Tiya’s pastimes.
  • How will Tiya learn about yoga?

C Read the following texts. Then check (\’ ) the statements below:

Yoga: Tap Into the Many Health Benefits

Understanding yoga

Yoga is a kind of posture and breathing exercise. It brings together physical and mental disciplines to achieve peace of body and mind, helping you relax and manage stress and anxiety. Traditional yoga puts emphasis on behavior, diet

and meditation. But if you’re just looking for better stress management—and not an entire lifestyle change—yoga can still help. Yoga trainers gradually choose easier to complex activities for practitioners. However, all practitioners do not necessarily need the same kinds of practice.

The health benefits of yoga

The potential health benefits of yoga are numerous and may include:

  • Stress reduction

With its quiet, precise movements, yoga   draws   your   focus   away   from your busy and chaotic day towards   calm   as   you   move   your   body through poses that require balance and concentration.

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  • Increased fitness

As you learn and refine new poses, you may enjoy improved balance, flexibility, range   of   motion   and   strength.   And   this   means   you’re   less likely to injure yourself in other physical endeavours or in your daily activities.

  • Management of chronic health conditions

Yoga might help in a variety of health conditions,   such   as   cancer, depression,   pain,   anxiety    and   insomnia,   fatigue   and   mood   shifts.   Yoga can also help reduce heart rate and blood pressure.

  • Weight loss

If you’re overweight or have   eating   disorder,   yoga   may   help   you   make the healthy lifestyle changes necessary to gain control of your eating and reduce weight.

While you shouldn’t expect yoga to cure you or offer you 100 percent relief, it can help   some   health   conditions   when   combined   with   standard   medical treatment. And if you already enjoy good health, yoga can be an enjoyable supplement to your regular fitness routine.

D Work in pairs. Discuss these questions. Give your own opinions.

  1. How does exercise work on our memory?
  2. What other benefits can you think of from exercise?
  3. What is the most important benefit of exercise to you and why?

E Complete the sentences.

a Yoga is a practice of

b                    Traditional                    Yoga                    works                    through c Yoga is very effective in managing

d       Through      the       poses      of      balance      and      concentration     Yoga e results in increased fitness.

f               Yoga               can               reduce              or               work               for

g Yoga can control

h Yoga cannot cure 100 percent, but

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F Check (>/ ) the statements about yoga below.

a Yoga improves fitness.

c It may differ according to practitioners’ levels.

e It works both on body and mind.

g If you know yoga, you have better control over your real life hazards.

b Yoga has little to do with eating habits.

d It helps people shake off all types of physical and mental disorders,

f It helps practitioners undergo similar level of difficulty.

h It also helps you live longer.

G Read the text.

Hi, I’m Shyam. I’m from Magura. Although   it’s   the   district   headquarters,   it’s   a small town. I’m in grade 9 now in Chander   Haat   Bidyaloya.   I love   games   and sports very much. My father was an athlete in his student life. He inspires me to follow in his footsteps and take part in games and sports or   do   some   exercise besides my studies. So I get up early in the morning and take a walk with my father almost every day. We walk for about an hour. At school, during break 1 play kabadi,   gollachhut,   badminton,   table   tennis,   and   carom.   Sometimes   I   prac­ tise the high jump and the long jump outside the school campus. Playing football is a passion for me. I like watching television too.

I watch sports programmes on   different TV   channels   during   my   free time.   I’m a fan   of   National   Geographic,   Discovery,   and   Animal   Planet    for    their documentaries as they are   quite   interesting   as   well   as   educative.   Recently   my father has presented me with a camera as he was very happy with the result of my Junior School Certificate exam. When I hold the camera, I feel so excited! I wish I could be an amateur photographer in future – not to take only personal photographs at different parties   but   to   shoot   our   beautiful   Bangladesh.   I’m   sure that soon photography will be my most favourite pastime.

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  • Work   in   pairs.   Read   the   statements   of   the   following    grid.    First match the parts in Column B with Column C to make complete sentences. Then make questions for the statements in Column A.
Column AColumn BColumn C
What——————————         When——————————-       How……………………………………     When——————————-     Who……………………………………     How long————————–   Why———————————     What——————————–Despite the fact that Magura is a district headquarters,His      father     was     a sportsmanHe encourages Shyam to participate in games and sportsShyam enjoys playing different games and sportsHe walks     They walk   He prefers programmes on nature and life   He watches sports programmesbesides his studies.         it is a small town.       in his student life.     during break at school.on different TV channels. f.with his father.   g. for their educative values.   h. for about an hour.
  • Write about your own pastime following the model in G.

Lesson 2: Reading Really Helps!

A Read the conversation and tell what Amusha is going to read. Anusha

: Tiya, hope you enjoyed the article on yoga.


: Yes, it’s great. By the way, Amusha, how did you enjoy London Olympics as a sports lover?


: People rightly say that it is the greatest show on earth. I’m still thrilled to remember what Michael Phelps and Usain Bolt have shown. Amazing!


: Right you are. They are incredible. However, I’ve got an interesting article on the Internet on Michael Phelps and Usain Bolt. You might like it and take part in the debate on who is better between these two greats. Please read it.


: Ahh… Michael Phelps and Usain Bolt! Thank you Tiya! I would love to read it.

B Read the text published in a newspaper in 2012, and answer the questions that follow.

Michael Phelps, Usain Bolt are great, but who’s better?

With the curtains closing on the 2012 London Olympics, it’s impossible not to look back and reflect on the greatest performances by Olympic athletes.


The Olympics have many memorable moments and athletes   we’ll   remember   by name alone. The list is quite big. Michael Phelps and Usain Bolt arc the latest addition to this list of the bests. They   made   London   Olympics   stand   apart.   If there is any question like this: “What is the standout performance of   London 2012?”, perhaps the answer is “The London Games gave   us   Michael   Phelps   vs. Usain       Bolt.” The   first  one     is     an    already     decorated        Olympian, who     put                   the finishing touches on his great athletic careers. And another came up with a new definition            of         fast.    Two    of   the    most    popular   Olympic   sports,   sprinting    and swimming, saw their two biggest stars captivating   audiences.   They’d   also   domi­ nated the 2008 Beijing Games, but Phelps and Bolt cemented their legacies in London. Phelps, the American swimmer, passed gymnast   Larissa   Latynia   for   the most Olympic medals ever. Bolt was the third man to repeat as a 100-mcter gold medalist and the first as a 200-meter gold medalist, and he broke his own Olym­ pic record by running the 100 meter in 9.63 seconds. Once Phelps and Bolt were back in their pool and track, the story lines changed.

Phelps is the most-decorated Olympian ever, with 22 overall medals: 18 gold, 2 silver, 2 bronze. Bolt is the most accomplished Olympic sprinter, with the unprecedented double, making clear that he’s the fastest man in the world.

But there’s a debate: Who had the better Olympics? It’d be tough to top Phelps’ eight gold medals in Beijing, but what if we’re only talking London?

London was Phelps’ grand finale. He won four golds and two   silvers   in   seven events, and he says he’ll never race again.

London was Bolt’s chance to prove   he’s   still   the   greatest.   Bolt   won   six   gold medals in six Olympic finals. He is the first man ever in the history of the modem Games to sweep the 100 and 200 in back-to-back Olympics. Not to mention the addition of back-to-back relay golds.

And Bolt became a legend, in his own words. Phelps already was. Bolt is just 25 years old, so there is no telling how long he can be on top of the sprinting world. What if he decides to “retire” from sprinting to focus on the 400 meters, just to break another world   record   or   two?   It   would   be   amazing   and   entirely   possible for him to accomplish.

Who had the better 2012 Games? You tell us, let the debate begin.

[Adapted from USA Today, Sports, London 2012]

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  1. What makes London Olympic 2012 exceptionally sensational?
  2. How are Phelps and Bolt brilliantly similar and different?
  3. Between these two Olympians who has bagged the highest honour within the same time frame?
  4. What is special in Bolt so far?
  5. How does Bolt evaluate himself ?

C Make two flow charts on Michael Phelps and Usain Bolt. The first two are done for you.

Michael Phelps

the greatest swimmer ever

*                    *                    *

Usain Bolt


the most successful sprinter

D Read the following text and complete the blank spaces with the appropriate words from the box below.

answer sprinter Olympians speed Olympics swimmer debate legends retired prove histories biggest

These   are   the   stories   of    two    most    successful    Olympians    of    history.    While one    is     famous     as     the     fastest     the     other     is     celebrated     as     the     fastest of      the      world.      However,      both      are      unparalleled       for       theirin       their own    field.    They    made    history    in    the    Beijing      They    have    made    newer in      the       London       Olympics       too.       They       are       the       living       now. Though      Phelps       hasfrom       his       race,       Bolt       has       prospects       tohimself in the next Olympic as   well.   After   theshow   on   earth   is   over   in   London, this will go on— who is better. Only time will this question.

Forma-4, English For Today-9-10

26                                                                                                          English For Today

E Work in pairs. Decide who is better between these two champions.

Give reasons in favour of your decisions.

Lesson 3: Change in Pastime

A Read the text.

Childhood outdoor pastimes ’in decline’

Traditional childhood pastimes of climbing trees and playing conkers are in decline, according to a survey by the RSPB (Royal Society for the Protection of Birds). It’s a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales.

The survey shows that people under 34 recall far fewer such   childhood outdoor experiences than people over 55, according to a survey by RSPB.

People were asked which of the twelve childhood outdoor experiences they could remember. The answer included making dens, daisy chains, climbing trees, playing conkers and feeding birds. Four out of five boys climbed trees and the same number of girls made daisy chains. But the survey showed the numbers declining among the newer generations.

Some 15% more of those aged over 55 had these outdoor   experiences   in   their   childhood, compared with those between 15-34 years old.

Some 92% of the public agreed that experiences of nature were still important to children, and

82% agreed that schools should play a role in providing them to all children.

The survey has highlighted the positive impact of contact with nature on a child’s education, health,

wellbeing and social skills. At the same time, there has been a decline in these opportunities, with negative consequences for children, families and society-a condition now known as nature deficit disorder.

Mike Clarke, chief executive of the RSPB, will meet parliament members to urge the government to join other organisations in providing children with first­ hand experiences of the natural environment. . . . “We believe this guidance should include the many positive impacts to children of having contact with nature and learning outside the classroom.”

[Adapted from BBC news 6 September 2010]

English For Today                                                                                                          27

  • Read the following words and write their meanings   as   you   understand them from the context.   If   you   don’t   understand,   check   the   words from a dictionary.


dens decline highlight





  • Read   the   following   statement   taken   from   the    text    in   A   and   say what the subject of comparison is. Find out the other comparison in the text above.

People     under    34     recall     fewer    such    childhood    outdoor    experiences    than people over 55, according to the survey by Ipsos Mori for RSPB.

D Do you agree that if children have more contacts with nature, they may have a positive impact on them? Make a list of the benefits or harms they may have if taken to nature frequently.

E Speak to the senior citizens   in   your   home   or   community.   Ask   them about their pastime activities and take notes on them. Then write a paragraph in the style of the text given in Section A to show the differences. Also mention why these differences have taken place.

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Lesson 4: Change in Pastimes in Bangladesh

  1. Tiya and Anusha   decided   to   make   a   survey   on   students’   pastimes in their class. After the survey they presented   their   findings   in   a chart. Look at the chart and read how they explain their findings.
ItemsFor classes 9-10For classes 5-6
Playing games and sports22.3%9.2%
Watching television17.2%31.2%
Chatting with friends13.7%                      6.7%
Reading books or magazines12.9%11.7%
Gardening10.7%                    6.1%
Attending social programs such as music, recitations or debates9.1%7.8%
Playing games on computers8.2%                      20.9%

Tiya: Hello everyone! My name is Tiya. My friend, Anusha and I are going to do a presentation on Pastime Habits of Classes   9   and   10   students   in   our   school. There are 120 students, 60 in class 9 and 60 in class 10. The classes have gender equity. Each class has 30 male and 30 female students. The survey shows that

  • percent of students in classes 9-10 like games and sports   as   their   most favourite   pastime,   which   is   the   4th   option   given   by   classes   5-6    students. Watching television is the second choice (17.2%) by the first group in contrast to 31.2% of the second group. It is noteworthy that watching television is the first choice   of   the   second   group.   A   considerable   number   (13.7%)   of   9-10   students like to chat with their friends and thus it becomes the third popular choice in the chart while this becomes one of the less   important choices   by   the younger kids. Only 6.7% of the kids take it as their first priority. It’s interesting that both the groups like reading books. 12.9% of students of classes 9-10 take   it   as   their favourite pastime. The number is   11.7%   for   Classes   5-6   students.   Besides, gardening is voted (10.7% of students) to be the 5th preference by the grown up

English For Today                                                                                                          29

group though it is not that much liked by the younger group. Only 6.1 % of the young kids are involved in it. This is interesting that though the higher number of   students   in   classes   9-10   prefer   attending    social    programs    (9.1%)    than students of classes 5-6 (7.8%),   yet as   a   choice   it is   preferred   by   the latter group. It is the 5 th choice for them while to the older group it is the 6th. Young kids have greater fascination for playing   games   on   the   computers   (20.9%   like   it   as their first choice). The chart shows that as the   kids   grow   up,   they   lose   their passion for computer games. According to   the   chart   the   ratio   declines   to   8.2% from 20.9% when the kids are students   of classes 9-10. Finally, it can be said that the influence of television has impact on both the groups but the more students grow up, the more they opt for fields/ gym.


  1. What are the gender policy of the surveyors?
    1. What are the survey findings regarding watching television?
    1. Which age group is more interested in socializing with others?
    1. According to the chart, how do the kids change their pastimes when they are grown up? What changes docs the chart for 9-10 reflect?
  2. Work in groups. Make a chart on the pastimes of the students in your class and present it to your class.

Lesson 5: Pastimes Vary

A Read the conversation. What is it about? Do you agree or disagree?

Tiya                 : Anusha, I really wonder how pastimes vary from generation to generation.

Anusha Tiya Anusha

: Oh yes. I can tell you how.

: Although I don’t know exactly, 1 think time is a big factor.

: You are right. Time   changes   many   things.   It   changes   our   tastes and abilities. Technology has roles   too.   Look,   there   was   a   time when playing in the fields was very popular because we had many open fields around. Going to a neighbours’ houses and hanging out in groups were popular pastimes as well. You won’t   see   these activities now. The   process   of   urbanization,   the   aggression   of satellite television and people’s dependence on   technology   have changed our lifestyle. Now boys and girls of urban and semi-urban areas are more dependent on the computer   for   social   networking, video games, or computer assisted programmes.

30                                                                                                          English For Today

Tiya               : Right. But how do you know all these things, Anusha? Anusha     : Oh.    I read an interesting article on people’s changing

pastimes. It analyses the issue through a graph. Here it is. Read,

and I’m sure you will enjoy it.

B Read the article. Underline the words/expressions used in the article to show the changes in the data. The first one is done for you in the text.

Young people’s changing attitude to pastimes

There is change in people’s preferences for pastimes. A recent survey shows that during the last twenty years, teenagers have gone through significant changes in choosing their pastimes. The survey results are presented through a graph which shows that there is a steady rise in young people’s tendency to watch TV. In 1990,41 % of teenagers liked watching TV which increased to 48% in the next ten years and it further increased to 52% in the next decade. Unfortunately, the picture is grim in terms of young people’s attraction to field games and sports. While 50% of youngsters opted for games and sports in the 1990s, the figure was 12% less after a decade at 38%. Unfortunately the falling tendency persisted through the next ten years and by 2010 it came down to 25%. Though the young people have dissociated themselves noticeably from games and sports, there is a sharp and steady rise in their association with online or computer assisted programmes. In 1990 when the users of online or computer for pastimes were only 9%, in 2000 the number nearly doubled and reached 14%, and with a rapid increase in the next ten years it shot up to 23%.

English For Today                                                                                                                                                 31

The survey also explains the reasons for this change. It says that television has become a part of everyday life even to the underprivileged section of society. This has resulted in   larger   number   of   young   people   opting   for   watching TV as one of the most favourite pastimes. The increasing urbanization has reduced the number of open fields. Therefore, there is a fall in selecting games

and sports as favourite pastimes, though it’s not a good news for the country. And the   reason   for   selecting   the   computer   assisted   or   online   programmes is that computer technology is getting   cheaper,   easier   and   more   popular every day. Indeed, our young generations are stepping into the e-world.

C Now work in groups and analyse the following graph.

Elderly people’s changing attitude to pastimes in a community